Sunday, August 20, 2017


  Day 2 - The patient is trying to stand up without support. She is able to, however walking is still difficult without support.

Postural twist improved and she is more erect.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Lecture 5 - Cerebral edema

Lecture 5 - Cerebral edema
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain. It is characterized by certain changes in morphology with the brain becoming soft and smooth and oedema fluid overfills the cranial vault. Gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed.
Physiologically it may be characterized by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, faintness, and in severe cases, seizures and coma. If brain herniation occurs, respiratory symptoms or respiratory arrest can also occur due to compression of the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla oblongata.
Causes – Cerebral edema can result from brain trauma or from non-traumatic causes such as ischemic stroke, cancer, or brain inflammation due to meningitis or encephalitis.
Vasogenic edema caused by amyloid-modifying treatments, such as monoclonal antibodies, is known as ARIA-E (amyloid-related imaging abnormalities edema).
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) or the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier may break down, allowing fluid to accumulate in the brain's extracellular space.
Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water, and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells.
Fast travel to high altitude without proper acclimatization can cause high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE).